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 Олешко О.П., Гайнц Г.К.

ФОРМУВАННЯ МЕРЕЖІ ТА ОСНОВНІ ТИПИ ПЛАНУВАЛЬНИХ СТРУКТУР НІМЕЦЬКИХ КОЛОНІЙ У ГАЛИЧИНІ КІНЦЯ ХVIII - ПОЧАТКУ ХХ СТ.

Національний університет „Львівська політехніка“ Львів

В процесі інтеграції України з Європейськими країнами виникає потреба вирішення проблем вивчення та збереження спадщини різних етносів, які проживали на її території. Інтерес до цієї тематики зумовлений ще й високим рівнем вивченості колонізаційних процесів в Європі у сер. ХVІІІ - ХІХ ст. та недостатньою вивченістю даної проблеми в Україні. Катастрофічний сучасний стан поселень німецьких колоністів, яких залишилось близько 10 % від закладених, також є потужнім сигналом до підняття цієї тематики в дослідженнях та необхідності обґрунтування цінності спадщини німецьких колоністів для історії архітектури і містобудування України.

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На початку  Першої світової війни на російсько-австрійському фронті ініціатива належала російській стороні.  До середини вересня 1914 року росіяни зайняли майже всю Східну Галичину. Це викликало велетенську хвилю біженців. Вже у вересні 1914 року до Відня прибуло 60-70 тисяч біженців з Галичини і Буковини. У 1915 році їх число збільшилося до 450 000 осіб.


Фото 1: Група українських біженців відпочиває на узбіччі дороги

У цій ситуації Австрійське міністерство війни вирішило організувати для цих людей табори.



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THE WORLD WAR I GMÜND REFUGEE CAMP AND ITS POSTAL FACILITIES

by Ingert Kuzych, Roman Dubyniak, and Peter Cybaniak

The early weeks of World War I did not at all go according to how the Austrians had planned. Glowing hopes for a speedy victory by Austrian troops over their nemesis of Serbia were dashed when Russia, Serbia’s ally, mobilized more quickly and attacked both the Austro-Hungarian Empire and its ally Germany, making substantial initial gains. Large portions of the Austrian crownlands of Galicia and Bukovina were occupied in the fall of 1914 and even though many of the territories were cleared of the Russians by the summer of 1915, some remained under occupation throughout the conflict.

By the end of September 1914, less than two months after the outbreak of the war, between 60,000 and 70,000 refugees had arrived in Vienna from the Russian-occupied eastern front. By 1915, the Austrian Ministry for the Interior estimated that the number of refugees who were eligible for state support had reached 600,000, of whom 450,000 came from Galicia and Bukovina on the eastern front and 150,000 came from the southwestern front on the Italian border. Transported by train to refugee camps in the German-speaking hinterlands, the Austrian War Ministry sought to group refugees according to nationality for ease and speed of repatriation, and to prevent their assimilation into the surrounding communities.

One of the largest camps was in the town of Gmünd, Lower Austria (Niederösterriech), some 120 km (75 miles) northwest of Vienna, very close to the Austrian-Bohemian border (Figure 1). Following World War I the new Austrian-Czechoslovak border ran through the town of Gmьnd. A section north of the River Lainsitz went to Czechoslovakia and was renamed České Velenice. The southern, main part of the town, however, remained with Austria

The crownlands of Galicia and Bukovina were heavily populated by Ukrainians and it was in the Ukrainian-inhabited lands that some of the fiercest early fighting of the conflict took place. At the outbreak of the war, 43 percent of the inhabitants of the crownlands were Ukrainian. Many Austrians still referred to these people as Ruthenians, but by the war years the description Ukrainian(s) was becoming more widely used.

In September of 1914, Gmünd was designated as the site of a refugee camp for Ruthenian (Ukrainian) evacuees from the eastern Austrian crownlands, and a barracks camp (Barackenlager) was hastily constructed south of the town. Gmünd was a major railway center, which made the locale an ideal site for such a camp. Building materials could be quickly ferried in to construct such a camp and subsequently, all manner of supplies to keep the camp functioning could be brought in at regular intervalsAround 30,000 Ukrainians were housed in this locale, while another 10,000 Ukrainians were interned in Wolfsberg and St. Andra, Carinthia (Kärnten). Examples of camps for other nationalities from Galicia and Bukovina included those for Poles in Leibnitz, Styria (Steiermark; for 30,000 internees) and Chotzen, Bohemia (for 20,000); some 20,000 Jews were housed in Nikolsburg, Pohrlitz, and Gaya in Moravia, and another 3,000 Jews in Bruck an der Leitha, Lower Austria


Figure 1. The town of Gmünd as it appeared before the war.

Ukrainian refugees underwent all sorts of hardships in seeking to flee from the ravages and misery of the war; we have been able to obtain several postcards showing their plight. The hardest part for many was getting from their relatively isolated villages to towns or cities where they could sometimes board trains to take them safety. However, families with livestock were often not able to obtain conveyance and had to make the journey of hundreds of kilometers on foot. Figures 2 and 3 depict some of the more fortunate refugees who were able to harness animals to wagons to make their escape. Figure 4 shows a refugee family’s earthen shelter thrown together in some woods (somewhat reminiscent of the sod houses constructed on the American prairie during the 19th century). Figure 5 illustrates refugees arriving at the Gmünd camp with some of their livestock.


Figure 2. Galician refugees walking and riding to safety.

 

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